Introduction and General Description of the Method of Contingent Valuation Contingent Valuation is a method of estimating the value that a person places on a good. The approach asks people to directly report their willingness to pay WTP to obtain a specified good, or willingness to accept WTA to give up a good, rather than inferring them from observed behaviours in regular market places. Because it creates a hypothetical marketplace in which no actual transactions are made, contingent valuation has been successfully used for commodities that are not exchanged in regular markets, or when it is difficult to observe market transactions under the desired conditions.
Developing Countries, Issues in Developing Countries, Issues in Water resource issues and problems in the world's developing countries, or lesser developed countries, present special management challenges. These issues and problems include inadequate drinking-water supply and sanitation facilities, water pollution, floods, the siltation of river systems, and the management of rivers and large dams.
These problems are more severe and widespread in the developing countries than in the world's wealthier, industrialized ones. Barriers to addressing water problems in developing nations include poverty, illiteracy, rapid population growth, and ineffective institutions and policies for developing, distributing, pricing, and conserving water resources.
The complex patterns of these problems in the Analysis on benefits on developing countries countries are shaped by differences in wealth, environment, and political systems. For example, extreme poverty in much of sub-Saharan Africa limits access to quality water services.
Bangladesh's location at the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers makes it one of the world's most flood-prone nations.
The political system of apartheid in South Africa for years limited the access of rural blacks to adequate water resources. Such differences and patterns must be considered when evaluating water resource problems in the developing nations.
Despite this commitment and the resources devoted to improving water services, inadequate drinking-water supplies and sanitation facilities constitute a key water resource problem in the developing countries. Nearly 1 billion of the world's people do not have an "adequate" supply of water, and roughly 2 billion do not have access to "adequate" sanitation facilities with "adequate" defined as a single water tap shared among hundreds of people.
Most of these people are in the world's developing nations. The lack of adequate water services is the cause of much disease and illness in the developing nations.
Inadequate water supply in this city of 9 million has forced many residents to drink and bathe from derelict surface-water sources. According to the World Bank, the use of polluted water for human consumption is the principal cause of health problems that kill more than 2 million people each year—most of them children—and make another billion sick.
The shortage of drinking-water facilities means that open bodies of water are often used as drinking-water sources. Standing, open water bodies make attractive breeding grounds for mosquitoes, which may transmit malaria. Standing water also may host snails, which may carry schistosomiasis, a tropical disease that affects the urinary and intestinal systems.
Poor public health conditions reduce human productivity and result in economic losses that poor countries can ill afford. One barrier to improving water services in the developing nations is the high cost of upgrading and constructing infrastructure.
Increased demand and intensive use of water as caused by population increases often create the need for additional water treatment because water in new source areas tends to be of lower quality; in addition, the original supplies have diminished or their quality has been degraded.
In Mexico City, for example, water is pumped over an elevation of 1, meters about 3, feet into the Mexico Valley. This is 55 percent higher than the former source, the Mexico Valley aquifer. A newly designed water supply project for the city, to be pumped over an elevation of 2, meters about 6, feetis expected to be even more costly.
Water Pollution Water pollution in the developing nations is caused by animal and human waste, overapplication of fertilizers, industrial chemicals, urban runoff, and a general lack of pollution prevention laws and their enforcement.
Access to adequate wastewater treatment facilities in the developing countries is very limited.
For example, only of India's 3, towns and cities—less than one in ten—have even partial sewage systems and treatment facilities. As a result, waterbodies in the developing nations are often used as open sewers for human waste products and garbage. Floods account for about 40 percent of all deaths caused by natural disasters, most of which are in the developing nations.
Infour of the world's five largest natural disasters were floods. Floods also convey environmental and social benefits. Floods carry sediments and nutrients downstream and into floodplains.
This natural process is important to river ecology and for agricultural production. Many farmers Women in Ethiopia carry water from a lake in background back to their homes. The time spent hauling water can be significant in areas where sources of domestic water supply are limited. Floods provide reproductive cues to fishes and allow them to swim into floodplains and feast on submerged floodplain vegetation.
Fish are a critical source of animal protein for many people in the lesser developed countries. Programs for flood management should consider and seek to balance these hazardous and beneficial aspects of floods.
Irrigation Irrigated agriculture is important in the developing nations, as it constitutes about 80 percent of water uses.
Many varieties of irrigated agriculture are practiced in the developing nations, ranging from gravity irrigation canal systems to small tanks and tube wells. Some of these systems are highly efficient, whereas others are affected by problems such as leaky delivery systems, salinization, fouled water supplies including groundwater, an important source of irrigationand inflexible delivery schedules.
A boy in West Bengal, India pumps water from a well in a flooded area. Floodwaters can contaminate cisterns and improperly designed wells, compounding problems caused by the river currents and inundation.
Deforestation Throughout the developing countries, deforestation is being caused by a combination of overpopulation, inappropriate land use practices, and inadequate environmental regulations and enforcement. Soil erosion is a natural process, but deforestation and other human activities have resulted in a fivefold increase in the average levels of sediment carried in the world's rivers.Cost-benefit analysis in education is an important tool in the economists' arsenal.
However, it is essential that research, especially on the social benefits of education, make further progress to make cost-benefit more analysis.
There is a need for more research on the effects of policy. Oct 25, · With member countries, staff from more than countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries.
Water resource issues and problems in the world's developing countries, or lesser developed countries, present special management challenges. ABSTRACT. The growing health disparities between the developing and the developed world call for urgent action from the scientific community.
Some sociologists believe that globalization benefits more at developed countries than developing countries. Due to the development of public transportation and mass media, the concept of world become smaller and smaller.
Bulletin of Education and Research December , Vol. 39, No. 3 pp. Analysis of Socio-Economic Benefits of Education in Developing Countries: A Example of Pakistan.