Shevelev Vladimir In any organization, managers at all levels need accurate and timely information for managerial decision making. Whether the decisions made are at technical, tactical, or strategic levels, good, accurate, and timely information always leads to a better decision. Gathering of information is done through a sound and scientific research process. Each year organizations spend enormous amounts of money for research and development in order to maintain their competitive edge.
Professor DDr Joachim E. The purpose of these guidelines is to offer recommendations for clinicians engaging in implant dentistry, enabling them to correctly assess potential indications and any limitations thereof for short, angulated or diameter-reduced implants.
This consensus paper covers only titanium implants typically placed in accordance with the indications recommended by the European Consensus Conference EuCC, Germany, 6 February All consensus recommendations in this paper should be considered as guidelines only.
Avoiding bone augmentation through reduced--dimension implants and optimum utilization of available bone volume is often recommended being a minimally invasive treatment option. To ensure an acceptable treatment outcome, dimension and insertion type must be considered in addition to the number of implants.
The publications identified by the search were screened by reading Research design and hypothesis for performance appraisal abstracts, and those irrelevant to the subject were identified and excluded.
Publications found to be potentially relevant were obtained in full-text form. Multiple review papers with meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials RCTsand other prospective and retrospective systematic clinical studies were available on the subject.
A preliminary version of this document on which the EuCC based its deliberations was prepared by Dr J. The preliminary report was then reviewed and discussed by the sitting committee members in five steps as follows: Numerous reviews, but few RCTs randomised controlled trials or other systematic clinical trials are available on this topic.
The application of standard implants in patients with atrophy of their alveolar ridges or large pneumatization of the maxillary sinus cavity often requires the use of hard tissue augmentation procedures.
These procedures are established, and widely used with success. But depending on level of training of the user and the patient-specific risk factors, complications may occur and affect the postoperative quality of life.
Short implants are increasingly being discussed as a treatment alternative in situations characterized by limited vertical bone height.
Compared to the use of standard implants due to biomechanical considerations e. Improvements in implant design and surface along with the use of modified implant insertion methods all are intended to minimize these risks 3.
Short implants are primarily used to avoid bone augmentation procedures in the maxillary and mandibular posterior segments of partially edentulous patients.
They are also used to support removable overdentures as single or multiple tooth replacements in the anterior jaws. For ultra-short implants, there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations at this time.
A review paper from summarized findings with RCTs on sinus floor elevation with standard length implants or short implants on their own. Five studies reported 16—18 months survival rates for long implants in combination with sinus elevation of These results are supported by other RCTs.
The number of RCTs on the use in the mandible is limited. In these RCTs, no relevant differences in biological parameters between the use of short and long implants in the posterior mandible were found.
One group has presented five-year results showing no significant difference for the application of short implants alone as compared to standard implants and vertical augmentation in the mandible. A retrospective comparative analysis also showed no differences between short and long implants for an observation period of five years.
Meta-analysis showed high survival rates for short implants with moderately rough surfaces.
Long-term data for observation periods of 10 years for the posterior mandible of partially edentulous patients and 20 years for mandibular overdentures showed favourable results for short, sintered porous-surfaced implants.
Some authors have offered recommendations on how to avoid complications that are mainly biomechanical in nature. Provided the specific treatment parameters are observed, the use of short, angulated or diameter-reduced implants in sites with reduced bone volume can be a reliable treatment option, given the risks associated with the use of standard-dimension implants in combination with augmentation procedures.
The implant surgeon and the restorative dentist must have appropriate training to choose the best possible therapy for each patient.
The prosthetic treatment of the severe atrophic maxilla request quite often an implant placement after an intense grafting procedure. The acceptance of intense grafting procedures e.
The use of ultrashort implants is an option to avoid grafting procedures.Models and theories of performance management system. ). Performance management is many times mistaken as performance appraisal but the latter is just a part of the former.
I am also doing a research on design a model of performance management. I need your help in this area tnx. Reply. performance appraisals. Another research in Kenya revealed that performance appraisal has positive impact on the job performance which leads to the motivation.
This study was conducted at the ministry of the state for Research hypothesis are the specific . The Effects of Gadgetpro Enterprises Performance Appraisal System on Employees. This understanding will help managers to design programs that result in the highest level of performance among employees in the organization will lead to increased profits and outcomes in the future.
Research Questions and Hypothesis. performance appraisal and employee motivation in financial institutions in Ghana. Specifically, the study found out the methods of appraisal used by the financial institutions and the level of. Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in the northern hemisphere, is a serious public health problem.
In North America, it is caused exclusively by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. The design principle used was the simple phase change or A/B design (Barlow et al. ): a count of the number of concerns described by students using the standard form was made in week 1, followed by a count of the number of concerns described by students using the trial questionnaire in week 2.