What were the impacts of Renaissance on art, architecture, science? The Renaissance which started in Italy and spread to other countries of Europe, left a deep impact on art, architecture, science, and above all on human thinking.
European science in the Middle Ages and List of medieval European scientists During and after the Renaissance of the 12th centuryEurope experienced an intellectual revitalization, especially with regard to the investigation of the natural world. In the 14th century, however, a series of events that would come to be known as the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was underway.
When the Black Death came, it wiped out so many lives it affected the entire system. It brought a sudden end to the previous period of massive scientific change. Recurrences of the plague and other disasters caused a continuing decline of population for a century.
The Renaissance[ edit ] The 14th century saw The impact that the renaissance made beginning of the cultural movement of the Renaissance.
The rediscovery of ancient texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinopleinwhen many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the West, particularly Italy.
Also, the invention of printing was to have great effect on European society: But this initial period is usually seen as one of scientific backwardness. There were no new developments in physics or astronomy, and the reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic views of the universe.
Philosophy lost much of its rigour as the rules of logic and deduction were seen as secondary to intuition and emotion. At the same time, Humanism stressed that nature came to be viewed as an animate spiritual creation that was not governed by laws or mathematics.
Science would only be revived later, with such figures as CopernicusGerolamo CardanoFrancis Baconand Descartes. Alchemy[ edit ] Alchemy is the study of the transmutation of materials through obscure processes.
It is sometimes described as an early form of chemistry. One of the main aims of alchemists was to find a method of creating gold from other substances. A common belief of alchemists was that there is an essential substance from which all other substances formed, and that if you could reduce a substance to this original material, you could then construct it into another substance, like lead to gold.
Medieval alchemists worked with two main elements or principles, sulphur and mercury. Paracelsus was an alchemist and physician of the Renaissance.
The Paracelsians added a third principle, salt, to make a trinity of alchemical elements. Astronomy[ edit ] The astronomy of the late Middle Ages was based on the geocentric model described by Claudius Ptolemy in antiquity.
Probably very few practicing astronomers or astrologers actually read Ptolemy's Almagestwhich had been translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century. Instead they relied on introductions to the Ptolemaic system such as the De sphaera mundi of Johannes de Sacrobosco and the genre of textbooks known as Theorica planetarum.
For the task of predicting planetary motions they turned to the Alfonsine Tablesa set of astronomical tables based on the Almagest models but incorporating some later modifications, mainly the trepidation model attributed to Thabit ibn Qurra.
Contrary to popular belief, astronomers of the Middle Ages and Renaissance did not resort to "epicycles on epicycles" in order to correct the original Ptolemaic models—until one comes to Copernicus himself. Sometime aroundmathematician Georg Purbach — began a series of lectures on astronomy at the University of Vienna.
Regiomontanus —who was then one of his students, collected his notes on the lecture and later published them as Theoricae novae planetarum in the s. This "New Theorica" replaced the older theorica as the textbook of advanced astronomy.
Purbach also began to prepare a summary and commentary on the Almagest. He died after completing only six books, however, and Regiomontanus continued the task, consulting a Greek manuscript brought from Constantinople by Cardinal Bessarion.
When it was published inthe Epitome of the Almagest made the highest levels of Ptolemaic astronomy widely accessible to many European astronomers for the first time.
The last major event in Renaissance astronomy is the work of Nicolaus Copernicus — He was among the first generation of astronomers to be trained with the Theoricae novae and the Epitome. Shortly before he began to revive Aristarchus's idea that the Earth revolves around the Sun.
He spent the rest of his life attempting a mathematical proof of heliocentrism. When De revolutionibus orbium coelestium was finally published inCopernicus was on his deathbed. A comparison of his work with the Almagest shows that Copernicus was in many ways a Renaissance scientist rather than a revolutionary, because he followed Ptolemy's methods and even his order of presentation.
In astronomy, the Renaissance of science can be said to have ended with the works of Johannes Kepler — and Galileo Galilei — Medicine[ edit ] With the Renaissance came an increase in experimental investigation, principally in the field of dissection and body examination, thus advancing our knowledge of human anatomy.
Understanding of medical sciences and diagnosis improved, but with little direct benefit to health care. Few effective drugs existed, beyond opium and quinine. William Harvey provided a refined and complete description of the circulatory system.
The most useful tomes in medicine, used both by students and expert physicians, were materiae medicae and pharmacopoeiae. Geography and the New World[ edit ] In the history of geographythe key classical text was the Geographia of Claudius Ptolemy 2nd century.Mar 18, · The Renaissance era was a period of learning and cultural development in Europe during the 14th to the 17th centuries.
Beginning in Florence, Italy, the learning of the Renaissance soon spread all over Europe, with an emphasis on intellectual inquiry and Classical revival that marked a Reviews: The impact of the Renaissance on Europe Jacob Burckhardt best describes the renaissance as the prototype of the modern world, for it was the period between the fourteenth and fifteenth century in Italy, when the base of modern civilisation was formed.
The Renaissance had a profound influence on the course of the development of modern American society, culture, and, since it is a natural extension of both, artistic expression.
The Renaissance influence in America brought about a new focus on humanism and as a result, a subsequent turning away from the dominant ideals put forth by the church.
T he Renaissance – that cultural, political, scientific and intellectual explosion in Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries – represents perhaps the most profoundly important period in human development since the fall of Ancient Rome.
Renaissance, (French: “Rebirth”) Great works of art animated by the Renaissance spirit, however, continued to be made in northern Italy and in northern Europe. Seemingly unaffected by the Mannerist crisis, northern Italian painters such as Correggio (–). Impact of Music of the Harlem Renaissance Upon the Artists of Today Musicians during the Harlem Renaissance created a style and movement that simply took Americans by storm.
Musicians such as Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong have inspired others all over the country.